Battista Sforza: Countess of Urbino: An Illustrious Woman Part 2

As part two of the post on Battista Sforza, the reverse of Piero della Francesca’s striking Diptych of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza will be discussed. Don’t forget to check out part one! Dedicated to Lady, my faithful companion for the last 11 years.

montefe3

The reverse of the diptych celebrates the personal achievements of Battista and her husband and it is within these panels that the prescribed roles of the ruler and his consort are most clearly adhered to. [Fig. Five] Piero’s work is the earliest example of a diptych with scenes on the reverse.[1] Image and text work together here to provide the viewer with an insight into the accomplishments of the sitters. The theme of unity is underlined in a similar manner to the front panels by the placement of the figures facing one another before a continuous landscape and the presence of the parapet underneath carrying Latin inscriptions proclaiming the virtues of the sitters. In these scenes, Federico regains the position of honour with Battista assuming the place traditionally assigned to women.

montefe4

Both figures are represented seated on a triumphal cart surrounded by women who personify qualities possessed by the couple. Federico, in the scene of the Triumph of Fame, dressed in his suit of armour is reminiscent of a Roman general seated upon the field stool used on the battlefield, and is about to be crowned with a wreath of laurels by the winged female personification of Victory. He is accompanied by four women symbolically representing the Cardinal Virtues of Justice, Prudence, Fortitude and Temperance, essential qualities vital for a Renaissance ruler to possess.[2]

montefe6

 

The representation of Battista in the scene depicting the Triumph of Modesty (Pudicità) opposite that of her husband portrays a complementary image of a loyal and capable consort, accompanied by four female figures, including the three Theological Virtues of Faith, Charity and Hope.[3] Battista, mirroring the pose of her husband, is seated upon a chair holding a small book. The chariot is driven by Cupid and drawn by two unicorns, mythical creatures renowned for permitting themselves only to be caught by a chaste woman. Their presence emphasises the purity of the deceased, vital for the preservation of the Montefeltro lineage. Paola Tinagli argues that the virtues associated with the countess within this work were seen as the indispensable requirements for the model Renaissance woman and consort. These were also mentioned in all of the panegyrics and orations written in her honour both before and after her death.[4] The inscription located in the parapet below emphasises these qualities further:

               ‘QVE MODVM REBVS TENVIT SECVNDIS/

               CONIVGIS MAGNI DECORATA RERVM/

               LAVDE GESTARVM VOLITAT PER ORA/

 CVNCTA VIRORVM’

[She that kept her modesty in favourable circumstances/ flies on the mouths of all men/ adorned with the praise of her great husband’s exploits][5]

montefe8

The inclusion of the mysterious fourth figure located directly behind the countess and facing away from the viewer adds a further level of meaning to the two panels. Woods-Marsden suggests that the figure is intended to be interpreted here as a Clarissan nun with whom the countess had a very close relationship throughout her life as a consort, reflected in her choice of burial place in the nuns’ common tomb in Santa Chiara.[6] Dressed in a grey costume and headdress, the traditional colour of Time, she may also be interpreted as the symbol of Eternity.[7] When the two Triumphs of Fame and Modesty are read together, they can be interpreted as a Triumph over Death, signifying the eternal fame the couple have successfully achieved. Influenced by Petrarch’s Trionfi, Piero’s images follow the sequence of Triumphs Petrarch established in his poem in an symbolic manner.[8] Erwin Panofsky strengthens this thesis by remarking that in the work of Piero as well as that of Petrarch: ‘Chastity triumphs over Love, Death over Chastity, Fame over Death, Time over Fame, to be conquered only by Eternity.’[9] The decision to represent these specific Triumphs reflects the overall image Federico carefully constructed of his court and of his family.  The ruling couple are represented as conforming to societal ideals regarding their prescribed positions, leading to the success of the court under their rule. The balance and symmetry created by these two scenes replicates the central theme of unity and harmony on the front panels of the diptych, in this case a product of their respective achievements in their socially defined roles.

Although the representation of a pelican has been found on the reverse of posthumous medals created during this period, the inclusion of the bird accompanying Charity in a diptych scene is unique to this work. The pelican was believed to nourish her chicks with her own blood. The bird, in keeping with contemporary thought, is shown here tearing at its own breast to draw the blood to feed its young. Its appearance may be read as a reference to Battista’s self-sacrifice, reinforcing the myth written to explain her demise.[10] This subtle allusion reinforces the central theme of the scene celebrating the chaste and virtuous nature of the countess, her ability as a wife and mother and a statement regarding the legitimacy of the heir she bore.

An explanation for the incorporation of the triumphal scenes on the reverse of the diptych may be found in the proposed locations and functions for the work. The intended audience was contingent upon the original site for the work.[11] A precise location has not been established, although a number of hypotheses have been made. Some scholars argue that it was likely to have occupied a prominent position within the palace such as the Throne Room so that it could be put on display not only for the immediate family’s viewing but also so that it could be seen by esteemed visitors.[12] It has also been suggested that the work was either placed upon a table in order for both sides to be visible or put on permanent exhibition in a space in the wall between the audience room and another space made into a chapel.[13] Woods-Marsden asserts that the work was only produced in special circumstances but was probably stored within the private space of Federico’s studiolo.[14] Aronberg Lavin also argues that, as the work was hinged and relatively small (each panel measures 47 x 33cm), it was to be opened to its different sides on various occasions and therefore functioned as a keepsake for private reflection.[15] When closed, the allegorical representations of the couple’s virtues depicted on the reverse acted as a ‘shield’, protecting the ruler portraits within.[16] The diptych was therefore designed so that the visualisation of the sitters’ values was visible when portable, promoting the ideal behaviour expected of the ruler and his consort. The front panels represented a more authentic view of the couple as co-rulers of their domain. In this capacity, the diptych was a highly valued object to Federico and would have been in the count’s personal possession along with his other treasured items such as his medals and gems.[17]

[1] Woods-Marsden, in J.M. Wood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca, 108.

[2] Grazia Pernis and Schneider Adams, Federico da Montefeltro and Sigismondo Malatesta, 102. Justice holds a scale in one hand and keeps Federico’s sword upright in the other and  is seated facing the viewer, nearest to the picture plane. Prudence carries a snake and a mirror, objects traditionally ascribed to her. Fortitude holds a broken column and Temperance is depicted on the opposite side facing away from the viewer and surveying the land around Urbino.

Clearly this scene of the Triumph of Fame is intended to exhibit Federico’s prowess as a condottiere, attested to by his recent victory at the Battle of Volterra on the behalf of Florence, the premise for the commissioning of the scene on the reverse.[2] Federico is portrayed here as possessing each of the crucial qualities necessary to govern his court effectively and successfully as reiterated in the inscription beneath, heralding him as a powerful and capable ruler:

‘CLARVS INSIGNI VEHITVR TRIVMPHO/

QVEM PAREM SVMMIS DVCIBVS PERHENNIS/

FAMA VIRTVTVM CELEBRAT DECENTER/

SCEPTRA TENENTEM.’

[He is borne into triumph/ fame celebrates him/ he holds a sceptre]

[3] Charity and Faith are seated at the front of the chariot. Faith is depicted holding a chalice, the host, a cross and accompanied by a faithful dog at her side. Charity is unusually dressed in black rather than red in this image and exceptionally is shown here holding a pelican. Hope stands behind Battista, and looks out of the pictorial space as if addressing the viewer.

[4] P. Tinagli, Women in Italian Renaissance Art, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1997, 58-59.

[5] Ibid. Her translation.

[6] Woods-Marsden, in J.M. Wood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca,  110.

[7] Grazia Pernis and Schneider Adams, Federico da Montefeltro and Sigismondo Malatesta,101.

[8] Ibid, 103.

[9] E. Panofsky, Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance, Harper & Row, London, 1972, 79.

[10] Woods-Marsden, in J.M. Wood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca, 109.

[11] Ibid, 112.

[12] Osborne, Urbino: The Story of A Renaissance City, 116.

[13] Aronberg Lavin, Piero della Francesca, 265.

[14] Woods-Marsden, in J.M. Wood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca, 113.

[15] Aronberg Lavin, Piero della Francesca, 265.

[16] A. Cecchi in L. Bellosi (ed.), Una Scuola per Piero: Luce, colore e prospettiva nella formazione fiorentina di Piero della Francesca, Venice, 1992, 144. This is confirmed by the varying levels of damage on the two sides.

[17] Woods-Marsden, in J.M. Wood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca, 113.

Battista Sforza, Countess of Urbino: An Illustrious Woman (Part One)

Battista Sforza, Countess of Urbino: An Illustrious Woman[1] 

This blog post (which is in two parts) will examine one of the most famous diptychs from the Renaissance period, Piero della Francesca’s Diptych of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza. This post is dedicated to my grandfather Frank Hoysted who passed away recently. For Pops.

1429a2153cfa449cb0ec4be9b626ada3-l 

Piero Della Francesca, Diptych of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza, c.1472-1474, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

The pivotal moment in the life of Battista Sforza, wife of Federico da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, was the birth of their only son, Guidobaldo on Friday 24th January 1472. On the 6th of July of the same year at the age of twenty-six, Battista died of pneumonia as a result of complications after childbirth. Her marriage to Federico was a fruitful one leading to the birth of eight daughters over a period of a decade and finally a son. A number of art works were commissioned by her husband within a short period after her death. The birth of Guidobaldo and Battista’s success in securing the continuation of the Montefeltro lineage, name and rule clearly influenced her husband’s decision to commemorate Battista in such a manner. I am going to focus in this blog post on the obverse of Piero della Francesca’s exquisite double portrait of Battista and Federico which is located today in the Uffizi Gallery Florence.

Diptych of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza

Accord and harmony, deemed as essential for the validation of the prestige of a fifteenth-century Italian court such as Urbino, are clearly the central themes of Piero’s Diptych executed c.1472-1474. These concepts were only attainable through the presence of a proficient consort in a court ruled by a condottiere (mercenary soldier). The ruler’s wife therefore possessed a double persona; she had to fulfil her biological function as a woman as well as her domestic obligations while simultaneously performing her civic duties as a consort. Although Battista had successfully given birth to numerous daughters, her son’s birth was essential to secure her familial and political position, confirming her acceptance by the citizens of Urbino as a suitable and capable ruler in Federico’s frequent absences. This acceptance is perfectly captured in della Francesca’s Diptych. Each element of the work was carefully chosen to promote and propagate the image of the ideal court and the magnificence of those who ruled it leading to scholars such as Martin Wanke arguing that the diptych is a straightforward image of prestige.[2]

On the obverse side of the image, the artist depicts the profiled portraits of Federico and his wife, set in front of an expansive and detailed landscape facing one another. Federico wears a simple red giubbone (jacket) and the cylindrical red berretta often worn by condottieri princes.[3] The austere appearance of the prince is furthered by the omission of any ostentatious display of jewellery or ornament on his person.

Battista Sforza*tempera on panel*47x 34 cm

In comparison, the countess is represented as the ideal court lady magnificently dressed (magnifica pompa) in contemporary costume, adorned with her most precious jewels, her hair in an elaborate coiffure with the small facial features and a high forehead considered fashionable at this time.[4] The intricate hairstyle was used not only to express the sitter’s rank, it also gave weight and majesty to her head.[5] The abundance of pearls- her favoured gemstone- other precious stones and the costly brocade dress in her portrait signified the wealth of her husband and of their court (pearls were also seen as symbols of chastity and virtue- important traits for a Renaissance woman to possess).[6] The use of the profile pose was clearly influenced by the medallic tradition dating from the Classical period, a genre that had recently been revived in the Italian courts as a form of visual propaganda promoting the rulers and their courts.[7] The profile portrait was synonymous with power, authority and prestige. The use of this format demonstrates the patron’s wish to be portrayed as a contemporary emperor and his wife as an empress possessing great influence and nobility.

Federico-da-Montefeltro-e-moglie-Battista-Sforza

The alignment of the sitters’ facial features and their positioning to face one another allowed the artist to depict their fixed gaze upon each other, reinforcing the promotion of their unified rule to the viewer. Piero’s use of complimentary colours in the couple’s portraits enhances this display of symmetry with an identical shade of red employed for the costume of Federico, his berretta, the touch of colour on Battista’s lips and the red brooch she wears. The red brooch depicted against Battista’s dress appears to reach towards the redness of Federico’s coat.[8] The portraits of the two figures and the various components of their depiction act as a balancing force in this image, indicative of the stability that the ruling couple brought to their court.

Interestingly, Battista is depicted on the left side of the diptych, an unusual feature for a double portrait. The man was typically depicted on the left, to the right of Christ which was considered the most honourable position. Scholars have argued that Battista’s placement on the left of the image was due to the need to conceal Federico’s disfigurement (he lost his right eye and nasal bridge in a jousting contest) as it was essential for a Renaissance ruler to hide any flaw from the painting’s audience.[9] Her inclusion in the more honourable position would only have been deemed appropriate and acceptable due to her death. Her privileged placement can also be read as an attempt to promote her virtuous nature, emphasised further by the presence of the symbolically-charged pearl on her body. The allusion to her chastity and its significance to the Montefeltro and the future of the court permitted her to be placed in the most distinguished site as the person who preserved the balanced nature of rule.

The couple’s positioning before the expansive and continuous landscape underlines their joint control as their large scale portraits dominate their surroundings just as the power of these rulers presided over their territories.[10] The inclusion of such a vista demonstrates the importance of territory to the Quattrocento prince as without land, he had no legitimacy or authority.[11] The influence of the Northern European tradition of double portraits is evident here by the juxtaposition of the figures against an extensive vista as can be seen in Hans Memling’s Double Portrait of An Elderly Couple, an early example of its genre.[12]

280px-Hans_Memling_Portrait_of_two_older

Hans Memling, Double Portrait of an Elderly Couple, 1470-1475, Staatliche Museen, Berlin and the Louvre, Paris.

Unlike Memling, Piero did not include a balustrade or some other form of device to separate the sitters from the scene behind them signifying that the landscape and those who ruled over it were unified; the couple integral to the preservation of the landscape and vice versa. Formal parallels can be drawn between the patterns found on Battista’s brocaded sleeve and the diamond-shaped necklace she wears and those repeated in the ploughed field, while the single strand of pearls replicates the diagonal and whiteness of the distant city walls.[13] Federico’s facial moles and their light-dark pattern is replicated by the design of the distant fields, the shaded area under his chin is repeated in the triangular hills while the white of his collar is echoed by the sails of the boats on the river.[14]

201204061718549BATTISTACONFRONTI

Comparison of the landscape of Urbino today to details from Della Francesca’s Diptych.

Aronberg Lavin points out that the countryside in the diptych appears to be far more placid and earthly than the reality of the Urbino landscape.[15] The modification of the landscape can be interpreted as visual evidence of how it was tamed and maintained by its benevolent rulers and the effects of harmonious administration.[16]

In Part Two of this post, the reverse of the diptych will be examined….. stayed tuned!

[1] The inclusion of ‘illustrious woman’ in the title is inspired by the title of Giovanni Boccaccio’s book De Mulieribus Claris (Famous Women) written in 1361-1362.

[2] Martin Wanke, ‘Individuality as Argument: Piero della Francesca’s Portrait of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino’, in N. Mann and L. Syson (Eds.), The Image of the Individual: Portraits in the Renaissance, British Museum Press, London, 1998, 81-90.

[3] Joanna Woods-Marsden, ‘Piero della Francesca’s Rulers’ Portraits’, in J.M. Wood (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002, 97.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ronald Lightbown, Piero della Francesca, Abbeville Press, New York, London and Paris, 1992, 237.

[6] Mary Hollingsworth, ‘Art Patronage in Renaissance Urbino, Pesaro and Rimini, c.1400-1550’ in C.M. Rosenberg (Ed.), The Court Cities of Northern Italy: Milan, Parma, Piacenza, Mantua, Ferrara, Bologna, Urbino, Pesaro and Rimini, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010, 335.

[7] P. Murray and P. de Vecchi (Eds.), The Complete Paintings of Piero della Francesca, Penguin, London, 1985, 100.

[8] L. Schneider-Adams, Key Monuments of the Italian Renaissance, Westview Press, Oxford, 2000, 91.

[9] M. Hollingsworth, in C.M. Rosenberg (ed.), The Court Cities of Northern Italy, 335.

[10] A. Angelini, Piero della Francesca, Scala, Florence, 1995, 62.

[11] Woods-Marsden in J.M. Wood (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Piero della Francesca, 106.

[12] M. Aronberg Lavin, Piero della Francesca, Phaidon Press, London, 2002, 259.

[13] Charles De Tolnay, Conceptions religieuses dans la Peinture de Piero della Francesca, Tipocolor, Florence, 1963, 14-16.

[14] L. Schneider-Adams, Italian Renaissance Art, Westview Press, Colorado, 2001, 197.

[15] M. Aronberg Lavin, Piero della Francesca, 259.

[16] Ibid.